GelRed™ and GelGreen™ are a new generation of fluorescent nucleic acid gel stains designed to replace the highly toxic ethidium bromide (EtBr)
GelRed™ and GelGreen™ use a novel yet very simple concept to reduce genotoxicity by preventing the dyes from entering living cells. A DNA-binding dye can be made nonmutagenic or substantially less mutagenic by denying contact with genomic DNA in living cells. Thus, GelRed™ and GelGreen™ are engineered such that the chemical structures of the dyes are incapable of crossing cell membranes. The Ames test confirmed that GelRed™ and GelGreen™ are nonmutagenic at concentrations well above their working concentrations used for gel staining. Furthermore, environmental safety tests showed that GelRed™ and GelGreen™ are nonhazardous and nontoxic to aquatic life. As a result, GelRed™ and GelGreen™ can be disposed of down the drain or in regular trash.
GelRed™ and GelGreen™ are highly sensitive either as precast gel stains or post gel stains. Designed primarily for use with a 312/302 nm UV transilluminator, GelRed is much more sensitive than EtBr. GelRed™ can also be used as a highly sensitive precast gel stain. GelGreen™ is developed to meet the needs of researchers who use a 488 nm laser-based gel scanner or a Dark Reader that uses a visible blue light for excitation. The dyes are stable in water at room temperature for long-term storage, and can be microwaved for making precast gels. Both dyes are also very photostable allowing use under normal room lighting.
GelRed and GelGreen are superior to EtBr and other EtBr alternatives by having a combination of low toxicity, high sensitivity and exceptional stability.